|INSPIRATION TUTORIALS (Since 1973) |||For private home tutors in Delhi & NCR, Call: - |
Harpal Singh Arora @ 98111 17788, 92509 92509
|Homepage||Our Vision/Mission||Search a Tutor||Tutor Registration||Online Tutoring|
|About Us||Importance of Tutoring||Search a Student||Student Registration||Contact Us|
Physics Home Tutors or Tuitions in Delhi
To arrange private home tutors opr tuitions for Physics (class 9, class 10, class 11, class 12, BSc, MSc, IIT or IIT-JEE & AIEEE) in Delhi or NCR (Noida, Gurgaon, Ghaziabad & Faridabad) kindly call Harpal Singh Arora at any of the following two numbers: - 9811117788, 9250992509.
Physics (from Greek: φύσις physis "nature") is a natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through spacetime, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the Physics Tutors in Delhi general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves. Physics is one of the oldest academic Physics Tution in Delhi disciplines, Physics Tutors in Delhi perhaps the oldest through its inclusion Physics Tutors in Delhi of astronomy. Over the last two millennia, physics Physics Tutions in Delhi was a part of natural philosophy along with chemistry, certain branches of mathematics, and biology, but during the Scientific Physics Tutors in Delhi Revolution in the 16th century, the natural sciences emerged as unique research programs in their own right. Certain research areas are interdisciplinary, Physics Tuitions in Delhi such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, which means that the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. In the Physics Tutions in Delhi nineteenth and twentieth centuries physicalism emerged as a major unifying feature of the philosophy of science as physics provided fundamental Physics Home Tutor in Delhi explanations for Physics Tutors in Delhi observed natural phenomenon. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental Physics Home Tutors in Delhi mechanisms of other sciences, while opening new avenues of research in areas such as mathematics and philosophy. Physics also makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism or nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products which have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as Physics Tutors in Delhi television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and, Physics Tutions in Delhi advances in mechanics inspired the development of Physics Tuitions in Delhi calculus. As noted below, the means used to understand the behavior Physics Tuitions in Delhi of natural phenomena Physics Tutors in Delhi and their effects evolved from philosophy, progressively replaced by natural philosophy then natural science, to eventually arrive at the modern conception of physics. Natural philosophy has its origins in Physics Tution in Delhi Greece during the Physics Tutors in Delhi Archaic period, (650 BCE – 480 BCE), when Pre-Socratic philosophers like Thales refused supernatural, religious or mythological explanations for natural phenomena and proclaimed that every event had a natural cause. They proposed ideas Physics Home Tutors in Delhi verified Physics Tutions in Delhi by reason and observation and many of their hypotheses proved successful in experiment, for example atomism. Natural science Physics Tuition in Delhi was developed in China, Physics Tutors in Delhi India and in Islamic caliphates, between the 4th and 10th century BCE. Quantitative descriptions became popular among physicists and astronomers, for example Archimedes in the domains of Physics Tutors in Delhi mechanics, statics and hydrostatics. Experimental physics had its Physics Home Tutor in Delhi debuts with Physics Tuitions in Delhi experimentation concerning Physics Tuitions in Delhi, Physics Home Tuitions in Delhi, statics by medieval Physics Tutions in Delhi Muslim physicists like al-Biruni and Alhazen. Classical physics became a separate science when Physics Tutors in Delhi early modern Europeans used these experimental and Physics Tuitions in Delhi quantitative methods to discover what are now considered to be the laws of physics. Kepler, Galileo and more specifically Newton discovered and unified the Physics Tution in Delhi different laws of motion. During the industrial revolution, as energy needs increased, so did research, which led to the discovery of new laws in Physics Home Tutors in Delhi thermodynamics, chemistry and electromagnetics. Modern physics started with works of Einstein Physics Home Tutor in Delhi both in relativity and quantum physics. Philosophy For more details on this topic, see Philosophy of physics. In many ways, physics stems from ancient Greek philosophy. From Thales' first Physics Tutors in Delhi attempt to characterize matter, to Democritus' deduction that matter ought to reduce to an invariant state, the Ptolemaic astronomy of a crystalline firmament, and Aristotle's book Physics, different Greek philosophers advanced Physics Home Tutor in Delhi their own theories of nature. Well into the 18th century, physics was known as natural philosophy. By the 19th century physics was realized as a discipline Physics Tutors in Delhi distinct from philosophy and the other sciences. Physics, as with the rest of science, Physics Tuitions in Delhi relies on Physics Tutions in Delhi philosophy of science to give an adequate description of the scientific method. The scientific method employs a priori Physics Tution in Delhi reasoning as well Physics Tuition in Delhi as a posteriori reasoning and the use of Bayesian inference to measure the validity of a given theory. The development of physics has answered many questions of early philosophers, Physics Tutors in Delhi but has also raised new questions. Study of the philosophical issues surrounding physics, the Physics Tutors in Delhi philosophy of physics, involves issues such as the nature of space and time, determinism, and Physics Home Tutors in Delhi metaphysical outlooks such as Physics Tutions in Delhi empiricism, naturalism and realism. Many physicists have written about the philosophical Physics Tuitions in Delhi implications of their work, for instance Laplace, who championed causal determinism, and Erwin Schrödinger, who wrote on quantum mechanics. The mathematical physicist Roger Penrose has been called a Platonist by Stephen Hawking, a view Physics Home Tutor in Delhi Penrose discusses in his book, The Road to Reality. Hawking refers to himself as an "unashamed reductionist" and takes issue with Penrose's views. History Core theories Further information: Branches of physics, Physics Tutions in Delhi Classical physics, Modern physics, Topic Physics Tutors in Delhi outline of physics Though physics deals with a Physics Home Tutors in Delhi wide variety of systems, certain theories are used by all physicists. Each of these theories were Physics Tuitions in Delhi experimentally tested numerous times and Physics Tuition in Delhi found correct as an approximation of nature (within a certain domain of validity). For instance, the theory of classical mechanics accurately describes the Physics Tutors in Delhi motion of objects, provided they are much larger than atoms Physics Tutors in Delhi and moving at much less than the speed of light. These theories continue to be areas of active research, and a remarkable aspect of classical mechanics known as Physics Home Tutor in Delhi chaos was discovered in the 20th century, three centuries after the original formulation of classical mechanics by Isaac Newton (1642–1727). These central theories are important tools for Physics Tutions in Delhi research Physics Tuitions in Delhi into more specialized topics, and any physicist, regardless of his or her specialization, is expected to Physics Home Tutors in Delhi be literate in them. These Physics Tuition in Delhi include classical mechanics, quantum mechanics, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, electromagnetism, and special relativity. Fundamental physics The basic domains of physics While physics aims to discover universal laws, its theories lie in Physics Tution in Delhi explicit domains of Physics Tutors in Delhi applicability. Loosely Physics Tuitions in Delhi speaking, the laws of classical physics accurately describe systems whose important length Physics Tutors in Delhi, Physics Home Tutors in Delhi, Physics Tutor in Delhi, Physics Home Tutor in Delhi, Physics Tutors in Delhi NCR, Physics Tutors in Noida, Physics Tutors in Gurgaon, Physics Tutors in Ghaziabad, Physics Tutors in Faridabadscales Physics Tutors in Delhi are greater than the atomic scale and whose motions are much slower than the speed of light. Physics Home Tutors in Delhi Outside of this domain, Physics Tuitions in Delhi observations do not match their predictions. Albert Einstein contributed the Physics Home Tutor in Delhi framework of Physics Tuition in Delhi special relativity, which replaced notions of absolute time and space with spacetime and allowed an accurate description of systems whose components have speeds approaching the speed of light. Max Planck, Erwin Schrödinger, and others introduced quantum mechanics, a probabilistic notion of Physics Home Tutor in Delhi particles and interactions that allowed an accurate description of atomic and subatomic scales. Later, quantum field theory unified quantum mechanics and special Physics Tutions in Delhi relativity. General relativity allowed for a dynamical, Physics Tutors in Delhi curved spacetime, with which Physics Tutions in Delhi highly massive systems and the large-scale structure of the universe can be well described. General relativity has not yet been unified with the other fundamental descriptions; several candidates Physics Tuitions in Delhi theories Physics Tutors in Delhi of quantum gravity are being developed. Relation to other fields This parabola-shaped lava flow Physics Home Tutors in Delhi illustrates the application of Physics Tutors in Delhi Mathematics in Physics – in this case, Galileo's law of falling bodies. Mathematics and Ontology are used in Physics. Physics is used in Chemistry and Cosmology. Prerequisites Mathematics is the language used for compact description of the order in nature, Physics Tutors in Delhi especially the laws of Physics. This was noted and advocated by Physics Tuition in Delhi Pythagoras, Plato, Galileo, and Newton. Physics theories use Mathematics to Physics Home Tutor in Delhi obtain order and provide precise formulas, precise or estimated solutions, quantitative results and predictions. Experiment results in physics are numerical Physics Tuitions in Delhi measurements. Technologies based on Mathematics, like computation have made Physics Home Tutors in Delhi computational physics an active area of research. The distinction between Mathematics and Physics is Physics Tutors in Delhi clear-cut, but not always obvious, especially in Mathematical Physics. Ontology is a prerequisite for Physics, but not for Mathematics. It means Physics Physics Tutors in Delhi ultimately concerned with Physics Tutors in Delhi descriptions of the real world, while Mathematics is concerned with abstract patterns, even Private home tutors (or tuitions) for any class (class 1, class 2, class 3, class 4, class 5, Physics Tuition in Delhi class 6, class 7, class 8, class 9, Physics Tuition in Delhi class, 10, class 11, class 12) as well as for various professional courses and degree courses like BE, B Tech, B Arch, BSc, MSc, B Com, M Com, BCom, MCom, BA, MA, CA, ICWA, BCA, MCA, BBA, MBA, capital of India, Delhi (especially Rajouri Garden, Rajinder Nagar, Patel Nagar, Kirti Nagar, Punjabi Bagh, Paschim Vihar, Naraina, Ramesh Nagar, Shalimar Bagh, Pitampura, Janakpuri, Vikaspuri, Dwarka, Delhi Cantt, CP and some other areas of Physics Tuitions in Delhi Central Delhi, West Delhi, South Delhi, North Delhi & East Delhi) as well as NCR: - Gurgaon, Noida, Ghaziabad & Faridabad. IIT, IIT-JEE, PMT, AIIMS, AFMC, AIEEE beyond the real world. Thus Physics statements are synthetic, while Math statements are Physics Tuition in Delhi analytic. Mathematics contains hypothesis, while Physics contains theories. Mathematics Physics Tutors in Delhi statements have to be only logically true, while predictions of Physics statements must match observed and experimental data. The distinction is clear-cut, but not always obvious. For Physics Tutors in Delhi example, Physics Tutions in Delhi Mathematical Physics is the application of Mathematics in Physics. Its methods are Mathematical, but its Physics Home Tutor in Delhi subject is Physical. The problems in this field start with a "Math model of a Physical situation" and a "Math description of a Physical law". Every math statement used for solution has a hard-to-find Physical meaning. The final Mathematical solution has an easier-to-find meaning, because Physics Home Tutors in Delhi it is what the solver is Physics Tuitions in Delhi looking for. Physics is a branch of fundamental science, not Physics Tutions in Delhi practical science. Physics is also called "the fundamental science" because the subject of study of all branches of natural science like Chemistry, Astronomy, Geology and Biology are constrained by laws of physics. For example, Chemistry studies properties, structures, and reactions of Physics Home Tutor in Delhi the matter, including atoms, molecules, solids, liquids and gases. Properties are bound by laws of physics, like conservation of their energy, mass and charge. Physics Tuition in Delhi Structures are formed because Physics Tutors in Delhi particles Physics Tuitions in Delhi exert Physics Home Tutors in Delhi forces on each other, like electrical force and gravity. And reactions are a change in properties and forces that formed a structure, like the different ways in Physics Tutors in Delhi which atoms Physics Tutors in Delhi form molecules. Physics is applied in industries like Physics Home Tutor in Delhi engineering and medicine. Application and influence Archimedes' screw, a simple machine for lifting. application in lifting liquids Main article: Applied physics Applied physics is a general term for physics research Physics Tuitions in Delhi which is intended for a particular use. An applied physics curriculum usually contains a few classes in an applied discipline, like geology or electrical engineering. It usually differs from Physics Tutors in Delhi engineering in that an Physics Home Tutors in Delhi applied physicist may not be Physics Home Tutor in Delhi designing something in particular, Physics Tuitions in Delhi but rather is using physics or conducting physics research with the aim of developing new technologies or solving a problem. The approach is similar to Physics Tuitions in Delhi that of applied mathematics. Applied physicists can also be interested in the use of physics for scientific research. For instance, people working on Physics Tuition in Delhi accelerator physics might seek to build better particle detectors for research in theoretical physics. Physics is used heavily in Physics Tutions in Delhi engineering. For example, Physics Tutors in Delhi Statics, a subfield of mechanics, is used in the Physics Tutors in Delhi building of bridges and other structures. The understanding and use of acoustics results in better concert halls; similarly, the use of optics creates better optical devices. An understanding of physics makes for Physics Tuitions in Delhi more realistic flight simulators, video games, and movies, and is often critical in forensic investigations. With the standard Physics Home Tutor in Delhi consensus Physics Tuition in Delhi that the laws of Physics Tutions in Delhi are universal and do not change with time, physics can be used to study things Physics Tuitions in Delhi that would ordinarily be mired in uncertainty. Physics Tutor in Delhi For example, in the study of the origin of the Earth, one Physics Tutors in Delhi can reasonably model Earth's mass, Physics Home Tutors in Delhi temperature, and rate of rotation, over time. It also allows for simulations in engineering which drastically speed up the development of a new technology. But there is also considerable Physics Tuitions in Delhi interdisciplinarity in the physicist's methods, and so many other important fields are influenced by physics: e.g. presently the fields of econophysics Physics Tutor in Delhi plays an important role, as well as sociophysics. Research Scientific method Physicists use a Physics Home Tutor in Delhi scientific method to Physics Tutor in Delhi test the Physics Home Tutors in Delhi validity of a Physics Tutors in Delhi physical theory, using a methodical approach to compare the implications of the theory in question with the associated conclusions drawn from experiments and observations conducted to test it. Experiments and observations are to be collected Physics Tutions in Delhi and matched with the Physics Tutors in Delhi predictions and hypotheses made by a theory, thus aiding in the Physics Tutors in Delhi determination or the validity/invalidity of the theory. Theories which are very well supported by data and have Physics Tuitions in Delhi never failed any competent empirical test are often called scientific laws, or Physics Tuitions in Delhi natural laws. Of course, all theories, including those called scientific laws, can always be replaced by more accurate, generalized statements if a disagreement of theory with observed data is ever found. Theory and experiment Main articles: Physics Tuition in Delhi Theoretical physics and Experimental physics The astronaut and Earth are both in free-fall Lightning is an electric current Theorists seek to develop Physics Home Tutor in Delhi mathematical Physics Tutions in Delhi models that both Physics Tutors in Delhi agree with existing Physics Tutors in Delhi experiments and successfully predict future results, while Physics Home Tutors in Delhi experimentalists devise and perform experiments to test theoretical predictions and explore new phenomena. Although theory and Physics Tuition in Delhi experiment are developed separately, they are strongly Physics Tuitions in Delhi dependent upon each other. Progress in physics frequently comes about when Physics Tutor in Delhi experimentalists make a discovery that existing theories cannot explain, or when new theories generate experimentally testable Physics Tutions in Delhi predictions, which inspire Physics Tuitions in Delhi new experiments. Physicists who work at the Physics Home Tutor in Delhi interplay of theory and experiment are called phenomenologists. Phenomenologists look at the complex phenomena observed in experiment and work to relate them to Physics Tutor in Delhi fundamental theory. Theoretical physics has historically Physics Tutions in Delhi taken inspiration from philosophy; electromagnetism was unified this way. Beyond the Physics Tutors in Delhi known universe, the field of theoretical physics also deals with hypothetical issues, such as parallel universes, a multiverse, and higher dimensions. Theorists invoke these ideas in hopes of Physics Tuitions in Delhi solving particular problems with existing theories. They then explore the consequences of these Physics Home Tutor in Delhi ideas and work toward making testable predictions. Experimental physics informs, and is Physics Tuition in Delhi informed by, Physics Tutor in Delhi engineering and technology. Experimental physicists involved in basic research design and perform experiments with equipment such as particle accelerators and lasers, whereas Physics Tutors in Delhi those involved in applied research often work in industry, developing technologies such as Physics Tutors in Delhi magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transistors. Feynman has noted that experimentalists may seek areas Physics Tutions in Delhi which are not well explored by theorists. Scope and aims Physics involves modeling the natural world with theory, usually quantitative. Here, the path of a particle is modeled with the mathematics of Physics Tuitions in Delhi calculus to explain its behavior: the Physics Tuitions in Delhi purview of the branch of physics known as mechanics. Physics covers a wide range of phenomena, Physics Tuition in Delhi from Physics Home Tutors in Delhi elementary particles (such as quarks, neutrinos and electrons) to the Physics Tutor in Delhi largest superclusters of galaxies. Included in these Physics Home Tutor in Delhi phenomena are the most basic objects composing all other things. Therefore physics is sometimes called the "fundamental science". Physics aims to describe the Physics Tutors in Delhi various phenomena that Physics Tutors in Delhi occur in nature in terms of simpler phenomena. Thus, physics aims to Physics Tutions in Delhi both connect the things observable to humans to root causes, and then connect these causes together. For example, the ancient Chinese Physics Home Tutor in Delhi observed Physics Tutions in Delhi that certain rocks (lodestone) were attracted to one another by some invisible force. This effect was later called magnetism, and was first rigorously Physics Tuition in Delhi studied in the 17th century. A little earlier than the Chinese, the ancient Greeks knew of other objects such as amber, that when rubbed with fur would cause a similar invisible attraction between the two. Physics Tutors in Delhi This was also first studied rigorously in the 17th century, and came to be called Physics Tutions in Delhi electricity. Thus, physics had come to understand two observations of nature in terms of some root cause (electricity and magnetism). However, further Physics Home Tutors in Delhi work in the 19th century revealed that these two forces were Physics Tutor in Delhi just two different aspects of one force – Physics Tuition in Delhi electromagnetism. This process of "unifying" forces continues today, and electromagnetism and the weak nuclear force are now considered to be two aspects of the electroweak interaction. Physics Physics Tutors in Delhi hopes to find an ultimate reason (Theory of Everything) for Physics Tutors in Delhi Physics Tutors in Delhi Physics Home Tutor in Delhi why nature is as it Physics Tuitions in Delhi is (see section Current research below for more information). Research fields Contemporary research in physics can be broadly divided Physics Tutions in Delhi into condensed matter physics; atomic, molecular, and optical physics; particle physics; astrophysics; geophysics and biophysics. Some physics departments also support research in Physics education. Since the twentieth century, the individual fields of physics have become increasingly specialized, and today Physics Tutor in Delhi most physicists work in a single Physics Tuition in Delhi field for their entire careers. "Universalists" such as Physics Home Tutor in Delhi Albert Einstein (1879–1955) and Lev Landau (1908–1968), who worked in multiple fields of physics, are now very rare. Table of the major fields of physics, along with their subfields Physics Home Tutors in Delhi and the theories Physics Tutors in Delhi they employ[show] Condensed matter Main article: Condensed matter physics Velocity-distribution data of a gas of rubidium atoms, Physics Tutors in Delhi confirming the discovery of a new Physics Tutor in Delhi phase of matter, the Bose–Einstein condensate Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that Physics Tuitions in Delhi deals with the macroscopic physical properties of matter. In particular, it is Physics Tuitions in Delhi concerned with the "condensed" phases that appear whenever the number of constituents in a Physics Tutors in Delhi system is extremely large and the Physics Home Tutor in Delhi Physics Home Tutors in Delhi interactions between the constituents are strong. The most familiar examples of condensed phases are Physics Tutions in Delhi solids and liquids, which arise from the bonding and electromagnetic force between atoms. More exotic condensed phases include the superfluid and the Bose–Einstein condensate Physics Tutors in Faridabad found in certain atomic systems at very low Physics Tuition in Delhi temperature, the superconducting phase exhibited by conduction electrons in certain materials, and the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases of spins on atomic lattices. Condensed Physics Home Tutor in Delhi matter physics is by far the largest field of contemporary physics. Physics Tutor in Delhi Historically, condensed matter physics grew out of solid-state physics, which is now considered Physics Tuition in Delhi one of its main Physics Home Tutors in Delhi subfields. The term condensed matter physics was apparently coined by Philip Anderson when he renamed his research group — previously solid-state theory — in 1967. In 1978, the Division of Solid State Physics at the Physics Tutors in Delhi American Physical Society was Physics Tutor in Delhi renamed as the Division of Condensed Matter Physics. Physics Tutors in Delhi Condensed matter physics has a large overlap with chemistry, materials science, nanotechnology and engineering. Atomic, molecular, Physics Tutions in Delhi and optical physics Main article: Atomic, molecular, and optical physics Atomic, molecular, and optical physics (AMO) is the Physics Tuitions in Delhi study of matter-matter and Physics Tutors in Delhi light-matter interactions on the scale of single atoms or structures containing a Physics Home Tutors in Delhi few atoms. The three areas are grouped together because of their interrelationships, the Physics Home Tutor in Delhi similarity of methods used, and the commonality of the Physics Tutor in Delhi energy scales that are relevant. All three areas include both classical and quantum treatments; they Physics Tuition in Delhi can treat their subject from a microscopic view (in contrast to a macroscopic view). Atomic physics studies the electron shells of atoms. Physics Tutors in Delhi Current research focuses on activities in quantum control, cooling and trapping of Physics Tuitions in Delhi atoms and ions, low-temperature Physics Home Tutors in Delhi collision dynamics, the collective Physics Tutor in Delhi behavior of atoms in weakly interacting gases (Bose–Einstein Condensates and dilute Fermi degenerate systems), precision measurements of fundamental constants, and the effects of electron correlation on structure and dynamics. Atomic physics Physics Tuitions in Delhi is influenced by the Physics Tutor in Delhi nucleus (see, e.g., hyperfine splitting), but intra-nuclear Physics Tutors in Ghaziabad Physics Tutors in Delhi phenomenon such as fission and fusion are considered part of high energy physics. Molecular physics focuses on multi-atomic structures and their internal and external interactions with matter and light. Optical physics is distinct from optics in that it tends to focus Physics Tutions in Delhi not on the control of classical light fields by macroscopic objects, Physics Tutors in Delhi but on the fundamental properties of optical fields and Physics Home Tutor in Delhi their Physics Home Tutors in Delhi interactions with Physics Tutors in Delhi matter in the microscopic realm. High energy/particle physics Main article: Particle physics A simulated event in the CMS detector of the Large Hadron Collider, featuring a possible appearance Physics Tutor in Delhi of the Higgs boson. Particle physics is the study of the elementary constituents of matter and energy, and the interactions between them. It may also be called "high energy physics", because many Physics Tuition in Delhi elementary particles Physics Tuitions in Delhi do not occur naturally, but are created Physics Tutors in Delhi only during high energy collisions of Physics Home Tutor in Delhi other particles, as can be detected in particle accelerators. Currently, the interactions of elementary particles are Physics Tutors in Delhi described by the Physics Tutors in Gurgaon Standard Model. The model accounts for the 12 known particles of matter (quarks and leptons) that Physics Tuition in Delhi interact via the strong, weak, and electromagnetic fundamental forces. Dynamics are described in terms of matter Physics Tutions in Delhi particles exchanging gauge Physics Tutor in Delhi bosons (gluons, W and Z bosons, and photons, respectively). The Standard Model also predicts a particle known as the Higgs boson, the existence of which has not yet been verified; as of 2010, searches for it are underway in the Physics Tuitions in Delhi Tevatron at Fermilab and in the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Astrophysics Main articles: Astrophysics and Physical cosmology The deepest visible-light image of the universe, the Hubble Ultra Deep Physics Home Tutors in Delhi Field Astrophysics and astronomy are the application of the Physics Tuitions in Delhi theories and Physics Tutor in Delhi methods of physics to the study of Physics Tutors in Noida stellar structure, stellar Physics Home Tutor in Delhi evolution, the origin Physics Tutions in Delhi of the solar system, and related problems of cosmology. Because astrophysics is a broad subject, astrophysicists typically apply many disciplines of physics, including mechanics, Physics Tutors in Delhi electromagnetism, statistical mechanics, Physics Tutors in Delhi thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, relativity, nuclear and particle physics, and atomic and molecular physics. The discovery by Karl Jansky in 1931 that radio signals were emitted by celestial bodies initiated the Physics Tutor in Delhi science of radio astronomy. Most recently, the frontiers of astronomy have been expanded by space exploration. Perturbations and interference from the earth’s atmosphere make space-based observations necessary for infrared, ultraviolet, Physics Tutions in Delhi gamma-ray, and X-ray astronomy. Physical cosmology is the study of the formation and evolution of the universe on its largest scales. Albert Einstein’s theory of Physics Tutors in Delhi relativity plays a central role in all modern Physics Home Tutor in Delhi cosmological Physics Tuitions in Delhi theories. In the early 20th century, Hubble's discovery that the universe was expanding, as shown by the Hubble diagram, prompted rival explanations known as the steady state universe and the Big Bang. The Big Bang was confirmed by the success of Big Bang Physics Tutors in Delhi NCR nucleosynthesis and the Physics Tutor in Delhi discovery of the cosmic Physics Tuitions in Delhi microwave background in 1964. The Physics Tutors in Delhi Big Bang model rests on two theoretical pillars: Albert Einstein's general relativity and the cosmological principle. Cosmologists have recently established the ΛCDM model of the evolution of the universe, which includes Physics Tutors in Delhi cosmic inflation, dark energy and dark matter. Numerous possibilities and Physics Home Tutor in Delhi discoveries are anticipated to emerge from new data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope over the upcoming decade and vastly revise or clarify existing models Physics Tutions in Delhi of the Universe. In particular, the potential for a tremendous discovery surrounding dark matter is possible over the next several years. Fermi will Physics Tutors in Delhi search for evidence that Physics Tutor in Delhi dark matter is composed of weakly interacting massive particles, complementing similar experiments with the Large Hadron Collider and other underground detectors. IBEX is already yielding new Physics Home Tutor in Delhi astrophysical discoveries: "No Physics Home Tutors in Delhi one knows what is creating the ENA (energetic neutral atoms) ribbon" along the termination shock of the solar wind, "but everyone agrees that it means the textbook picture of the heliosphere — in Physics Tutor in Delhi which the solar system's enveloping pocket filled with the solar wind's charged Physics Tutors in Delhi particles is plowing through the onrushing 'galactic wind' of the interstellar medium in the shape of a comet — is wrong." Current research Further information: List of unsolved problems in physics Feynman diagram signed by R. P. Feynman A typical event described by physics: a magnet levitating above a Physics Tutor in Delhi superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. Research in physics is continually Physics Home Tutor in Delhi progressing on a Physics Tutions in Delhi large number of fronts. In condensed matter physics, an important unsolved theoretical problem is that of high-temperature superconductivity. Many condensed matter experiments are aiming to fabricate workable spintronics Physics Tutors in Delhi and quantum Physics Tutor in Delhi computers. In particle physics, the first pieces of experimental evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model Physics Tutors in Delhi have begun to appear. Foremost among these are indications Physics Home Tutor in Delhi that neutrinos have non-zero mass. These experimental results appear to have solved the long-standing solar neutrino problem, and the physics of massive neutrinos Physics Tuitions in Delhi remains an area of active theoretical and experimental research. Particle accelerators have begun probing energy scales in the TeV range, in which experimentalists are hoping to find evidence for the Higgs boson and supersymmetric particles. Theoretical attempts to unify quantum mechanics Physics Tutions in Delhi and general relativity into a single Physics Tutors in Delhi theory of quantum gravity, a program ongoing for over half a century, have not Physics Home Tutor in Delhi yet been decisively Physics Tutors in Delhi resolved. The current leading candidates are M-theory, superstring theory and loop quantum gravity. Many astronomical and cosmological phenomena have yet to be satisfactorily explained, including the existence of Physics Tutors in Delhi ultra-high energy cosmic rays, the baryon Physics Home Tutor in Delhi asymmetry, the acceleration of the universe and the anomalous rotation rates of galaxies. Although much progress has been made in high-energy, quantum, and astronomical physics, many everyday phenomena involving complexity, chaos, or turbulence are still poorly understood. Physics Tutors in Delhi Complex Physics Tutor in Delhi problems that seem like they could be solved by a clever application of dynamics and mechanics remain unsolved; examples include the formation of sandpiles, nodes in trickling water, the shape of water droplets, mechanisms of surface tension catastrophes, and Physics Tutors in Delhi self-sorting in shaken heterogeneous collections. These complex phenomena have received growing attention since the 1970s for several reasons, including the availability of modern mathematical methods and computers, which Physics Home Tutor in Delhi enabled complex Physics Tutions in Delhi systems to be modeled in new ways. Physics Tutors in Delhi Complex physics has become part of increasingly interdisciplinary research, as exemplified Physics Tutors in Delhi by the study of turbulence in aerodynamics and the observation of pattern formation in biological systems. In 1932, Horace Physics Tuitions in Delhi Lamb said: I am an old man now, and when I die and go to heaven there are two matters on which I hope for enlightenment. One is quantum electrodynamics, and the other is the turbulent motion of fluids. And about the former I am rather optimistic.